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A Quick Guide To Investment Portfolio Management

Publish date: Fri, 03 Mar 2023, 06:10 AM
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A portfolio is a collection of investments in several asset types, such as mutual funds, real estate, stocks, and bonds. It's crucial to manage it properly to protect your assets while potentially earning desirable returns; hence, portfolio management. You can use various strategies, such as diversification and risk management, to accomplish this.

Every investor is likely to have a unique investing portfolio. Several factors influence what one's portfolio looks like or contains. But among all the variables, the affinity for risk is the biggest determinant. Risk-averse individuals prefer safer investments. But investors with a higher risk appetite don't mind having riskier ones.

Portfolio Management Approaches

1. Active Portfolio Management

It's the proactive approach to portfolio management, as the name suggests. It often entails the frequent trading of securities. Investment management firms usually handle active portfolios.

2. Passive Portfolio Management  

It's the more reactive approach to portfolio management. It typically entails buying a bunch of securities, holding onto them, and tracking their performance against a benchmark index. 

How To Build A Portfolio  

1. Set Investment Goals  

Before you start developing a portfolio, you must clarify your investment goals. Clarify what you want to achieve with your investments. Maybe you want to raise funds for your children's education. Or you want to build up an income stream for retirement. Whatever the case, setting goals is essential because it provides direction.  

2. Determine Your Risk Tolerance  

To be a great investor, you must first understand where you fall on the risk tolerance spectrum. Risk tolerance is your willingness to accept risk. So, determine whether you are an aggressive (high-risk tolerance), conservative (low-risk tolerance) investor, or somewhere between.  

Your investment portfolio should ideally mirror your personality as an investor. You want to avoid a risky portfolio if you don't like taking chances. You'd better have a safe portfolio that guarantees a return even if something goes wrong.  

Riskier assets like cryptocurrency are volatile and tend to have significantly high returns. In general, the greater the risk, the greater the reward. It may not apply to all volatile assets or investments. But, the potential of a significant return usually draws some investors to riskier investments.  

Nevertheless, keeping your risk tolerance in mind would be best when choosing assets to add to your portfolio. Picking the wrong investment may lead to outcomes you don't know how to manage. Also, don’t be quickly drawn to the prospect of fast money because of trending investments. Practice self-control to protect yourself from making mistakes.  

3. Conduct Research  

Before making any investment, you should do the necessary research. You must understand how your investments work to get the most out of them. You must also assess whether a particular investment will assist you in meeting your investment objectives. The only way to distinguish between good and bad investments is to undertake extensive study beforehand.  

It would help if you understood each investment's risks and projected returns. Also, understand how the industry you want to invest in works. Consider speaking with an investment analyst from sites like if you're unfamiliar with specific industry dynamics.  

Remember, you'll need to know how things work to effectively manage your portfolio in the long run. This knowledge is even more crucial when using the active management approach.

4. Asset Allocation  

The next step is to determine your portfolio's asset composition and weighting. Your financial or investment goals will play a significant role in establishing the best asset allocation for you. You must select a portfolio of assets corresponding to your investment objectives and risk tolerance.  

To diversify the risk, you must select assets from various classes, locations, and industries with diverse risk profiles. Nevertheless, it would be best to consider the expected returns on your assets. Stocks are likely to be in the portfolio of aggressive investors. Conservative investors are more likely to favor assets such as bonds or cash.  

5. Monitor and Rebalance  

Once you've established your portfolio, evaluating it regularly and rebalancing it as needed is critical. It is important to note that the value of your assets is constantly changing at different rates. As a result, you must analyze and rebalance your portfolio regularly because market swings may cause the initial weightings to change.  

Aside from price fluctuations, your financial status, investing goals, and future aspirations may change. This, too, may require a reevaluation of your portfolio. You should determine which assets are under or overweight. Then rebalance them to the desired level. Rebalancing entails decreasing allocations and increasing allocations to other assets in the portfolio.   

Why Is Diversification Important?

Diversification spreads risk, which minimizes the possibility of total financial loss. Every portfolio contains assets with unique risk profiles. Putting your eggs in one basket, or investing in assets in the same class, puts you at risk of a complete financial loss if something goes wrong. One could argue that you stand to gain if your assets perform well. However, moving with the latter mindset is not wise because the economy is unpredictable. Your investment could lose value even if it's not your fault. But if you have a diverse portfolio, chances are that if one asset underperforms, the other assets will perform well or even better. It reduces the risk of total loss and adds security.

The goal of diversification is to buy assets that are not correlated. What does this mean? The same factors will likely not impact these assets, and their prices typically move in different directions. For example, if you own stocks in the mining industry, the price of those stocks will fluctuate similarly based on factors specific to the mining industry. However, if you invest in assets that aren't closely correlated, their prices will likely move in different directions at different paces. For example, holding gold in a recession is generally good because it retains its value well, whereas assets like stocks may fail in such conditions. Therefore, diversifying your portfolio is a smart move for any investor.


Portfolio management involves selecting and managing investments according to your financial goals. It is critical to define your investment goals from the start. Because people's risk tolerance levels differ, all investors will have different portfolios. Yet, investors should make investment decisions based on their risk tolerance since they must be willing and able to control their portfolio's risk profile.

There are several strategies one could use to manage their portfolio. The most crucial, though, is diversification. One of the goals of portfolio management is to reduce risk, and diversification is one way of spreading the risk. It means investing in firms with varying risk profiles across industries, sizes, and classes. You could seek advice from an investment manager.



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